Ethereum

History and Forks of Ethereum | ethereum.org

page last updated: August 17, 2022

a timeline of all the major milestones, forks, and updates to the ethereum blockchain.

Reading: Ethereum london hard fork

Looking for future protocol updates? get information about upcoming ethereum updates.

2022

grey glacier

📆Jun-30-2022 10:54:04 AM +UTC🧱Block number: 15,050,000💰ETH price: $1,069 USD🖥️ ethereum.org on waybackmachine

Summary

Grey Glacier’s network upgrade delayed the difficulty bomb by three months. This is the only change introduced in this update, and is similar in nature to the Arrow Glacier and Muir Glacier updates. Similar changes have been made in the Byzantium, Constantinople, and London network updates.

  • ef blog – gray glacier update announcement

2021

arrow glacier

📆Dec-09-2021 07:55:23 PM +UTC🧱Block number: 13,773,000💰ETH price: $4111 USD🖥️ ethereum.org on waybackmachine

Summary

the arrow glacier network update pushed back the difficulty bomb several months. this is the only change introduced in this update and is similar in nature to the muir glacier update. Similar changes have been made in the Byzantium, Constantinople, and London network updates.

  • ef blog – arrow glacier update announcement
  • ethereum cat herders – arrow ethereum glacier update

altair

📆Oct-27-2021 10:56:23 AM +UTC🧱Epoch number: 74,240💰ETH price: $4024 USD🖥️ ethereum.org on waybackmachine

Summary

altair’s update was the first scheduled update for the beacon chain. added support for “sync committees”—enabling thin clients and bringing validator downtime and trimming penalties to their full values.

  • read the altair upgrade specs

🎉Fun fact!

altair was the first major network update that had an exact deployment time. each previous update had been based on a declared block number on the proof-of-work chain, where block times vary. the beacon chain does not require proof-of-work solving and instead works on a time-based epoch system consisting of 32 twelve-second time “slots” where validators can propose blocks. that’s why we knew exactly when we would hit epoch 74,240 and altair would go live!

  • beaconcha.in glossary – slots

london

📆 Aug-05-2021 12:33:42 PM +UTC🧱 Block number: 12,965,000💰 ETH price: $2621 USD🖥️ ethereum.org on waybackmachine

Summary

the london update introduced eip-1559, which reshaped the transaction fee market, along with changes to the way gas refunds are handled and the ice age schedule.

  • Are you a dapp developer? be sure to update your libraries and tools.
  • read the ethereum foundation announcement
  • read the ethereum cat herder explainer

berlin

📆 Apr-15-2021 10:07:03 AM +UTC🧱 Block number: 12,244,000💰 ETH price: $2454 USD🖥️ ethereum.org on waybackmachine

Summary

the berlin update optimized the gas cost for certain evm actions and increases support for multiple types of transactions.

  • read the ethereum founding announcement
  • read the ethereum cat herder explainer

2020

beacon chain genesis

📆 Dec-01-2020 12:00:35 PM +UTC🧱 Beacon Chain block number: 1💰 ETH price: $586.23 USD🖥️ ethereum.org on waybackmachine

Summary

the beacon chain needed 16384 staked 32 eth deposits to send safely. this happened on november 27th, which means that the beacon chain started producing blocks on december 1st, 2020. this is an important first step in achieving ethereum’s vision.

See also: Ethereum Gas Price Charts & Historical Gas Fees – ethereumprice

read the ethereum foundation announcement

implemented participation deposit contract

📆 Oct-14-2020 09:22:52 AM +UTC🧱 Block number: 11,052,984💰 ETH price: $379.04 USD🖥️ ethereum.org on waybackmachine

Summary

the stake deposit contract introduced staking to the ethereum ecosystem. although it was a mainnet contract, it had a direct impact on the timeline for the launch of the beacon chain, a major ethereum upgrade.

See also: Ethereum Gas Price Charts & Historical Gas Fees – ethereumprice

read the ethereum foundation announcement

muir glacier

📆 Jan-02-2020 08:30:49 AM +UTC🧱 Block number: 9,200,000💰 ETH price: $127.18 USD🖥️ ethereum.org on waybackmachine

Summary

the muir glacier fork introduced a delay in the difficulty bomb. Increases in the block difficulty of the proof-of-work consensus mechanism threatened to degrade ethereum’s usability by increasing wait times for sending transactions and using dapps.

  • read the ethereum founding announcement
  • read the ethereum cat herder explainer

2019

istanbul

📆 Dec-08-2019 12:25:09 AM +UTC🧱 Block number: 9,069,000💰 ETH price: $151.06 USD🖥️ ethereum.org on waybackmachine

Summary

istanbul fork:

  • optimized the gas cost of certain actions in the evm.
  • improved resistance to denial of service attacks.
  • created layer 2 scaling solutions based on in snarks and starks more performance.
  • allowed ethereum and zcash to interoperate.
  • allowed contracts to introduce more creative features.

See also: Ethereum Gas Price Charts & Historical Gas Fees – ethereumprice

read the ethereum foundation announcement

constantinople

📆 Feb-28-2019 07:52:04 PM +UTC🧱 Block number: 7,280,000💰 ETH price: $136.29 USD🖥️ ethereum.org on waybackmachine

Summary

the constantinople fork:

  • made sure that the blockchain was not frozen before proof of stake was implemented.
  • optimized the gas cost of certain actions in the evm.
  • added the ability to interact with addresses that have not yet been created.

See also: Ethereum Gas Price Charts & Historical Gas Fees – ethereumprice

read the ethereum foundation announcement

2017

byzantium

📆 Oct-16-2017 05:22:11 AM +UTC🧱 Block number: 4,370,000💰 ETH price: $334.23 USD🖥️ ethereum.org on waybackmachine

Summary

the byzantium fork:

  • reduced block mining rewards from 5 to 3 eth.
  • delayed the difficulty bomb by a year.
  • added the ability to make calls that don’t they change state to other contracts.
  • added certain cryptographic methods to allow layer 2 scaling.

See also: Ethereum Gas Price Charts & Historical Gas Fees – ethereumprice

read the ethereum foundation announcement

2016

false dragon

📆 Nov-22-2016 04:15:44 PM +UTC🧱 Block number: 2,675,000💰 ETH price: $9.84 USD🖥️ ethereum.org on waybackmachine

Summary

the spurious dragon fork was the second response to denial of service attacks (two) on the network (September/October 2016) including:

  • adjust opcode price to prevent future network attacks.
  • enable blockchain state “deflation”.
  • add protection against replay attacks.

See also: Ethereum Gas Price Charts & Historical Gas Fees – ethereumprice

read the ethereum foundation announcement

tangerine whistle

📆 Oct-18-2016 01:19:31 PM +UTC🧱 Block number: 2,463,000💰 ETH price: $12.50 USD🖥️ ethereum.org on waybackmachine

Summary

the tangerine whistle fork was the first response to denial of service attacks (two) on the network (September/October 2016) including:

  • address urgent network health issues related to undervalued opcodes.

See also: Ethereum Gas Price Charts & Historical Gas Fees – ethereumprice

read the ethereum foundation announcement

dao hairpin

📆 Jul-20-2016 01:20:40 PM +UTC🧱 Block number: 1,920,000💰 ETH price: $12.54 USD🖥️ ethereum.org on waybackmachine

Summary

The dao fork was in response to the 2016 dao attack, in which an insecure dao contract worth over 3.6 million eth was drained in a hack. the fork moved the funds from the faulty contract to a new contract with only one function: withdraw. anyone who lost funds could withdraw 1 eth for every 100 dao tokens in their wallets.

See also: 10 Best Ways to Earn Ethereum for Free (Legit Sites to Join)

This course of action was voted on by the ethereum community. any eth holder could vote through a transaction on a voting platform. the decision to fork reached more than 85% of the votes.

Some miners refused to fork because the damage incident was not a protocol flaw. they went on to form ethereum classic.

See also: Ethereum Gas Price Charts & Historical Gas Fees – ethereumprice

read the ethereum foundation announcement

farm

📆 Mar-14-2016 06:49:53 PM +UTC🧱 Block number: 1,150,000💰 ETH price: $12.50 USD🖥️ ethereum.org on waybackmachine

Summary

the farm fork that looked into the future. included several protocol changes and a network change that gave ethereum the ability to do more network updates.

See also: Ethereum Gas Price Charts & Historical Gas Fees – ethereumprice

read the ethereum foundation announcement

2015

unfreezing borders

📆 Sep-07-2015 09:33:09 PM +UTC🧱 Block number: 200,000💰 ETH price: $1.24 USD🖥️ ethereum.org on waybackmachine

Summary

the border thaw hard fork removed the limit of 5000 gas per block and set the default price of gas at 51 gwei. this allowed transactions: transactions require 21,000 gas. the difficulty bomb was introduced to ensure a future proof-of-stake fork.

  • read ethereum foundation announcement
  • read ethereum protocol update 1

border

📆 Jul-30-2015 03:26:13 PM +UTC🧱 Block number: 0💰 ETH price: N/A🖥️ ethereum.org on waybackmachine

Summary

frontier was a live but basic implementation of the ethereum project. followed the successful Olympic test phase. it was intended for technical users, specifically developers. the blocks had a gas limit of 5,000. this “thaw” period allowed miners to start operations and early adopters to install their clients without having to “rush”.

See also: Ethereum Gas Price Charts & Historical Gas Fees – ethereumprice

read the ethereum foundation announcement

2014

ether sale

📆 July 22 – September 02, 2014🖥️ ethereum.org on waybackmachine

Ether officially went on sale for 42 days. You could buy it with BTC.

See also: Ethereum Gas Price Charts & Historical Gas Fees – ethereumprice

read the ethereum foundation announcement

yellow book published

📆 April 01, 2014🖥️ ethereum.org on waybackmachine

The Yellow Paper, authored by Dr. Gavin Wood, is a technical definition of the Ethereum protocol.

see the yellow paper

2013

published whitepaper

📆 November 27, 2013🖥️ ethereum.org on waybackmachine

The introductory paper, published in 2013 by Vitalik Buterin, the founder of Ethereum, before the project’s launch in 2015.

See also: Plasma chains | ethereum.org

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