1. robin a. Cohen, Emily P. Terlizzi and Michael E. martinez, Health Insurance Coverage: Advance Release of Estimates from the National Health Interview Survey, 2018 (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, May 2019).
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2. David C. Radley, Sara R. collins and susan l. Hayes, 2019 State Health System Performance Scorecard: Suicide, Alcohol, and Drug Deaths on the Rise; progress stalls on expanding health care coverage; Health costs are a growing burden (Commonwealth Fund, June 2019).
3. radley, collins, and hayes, 2019 scorecard, 2019.
4. research has found that nearly half of foreign-born Latinos are undocumented immigrants. see jens m. krogstad and mark h. Lopez, Hispanic immigrants are more likely to lack health insurance than those born in the US. uu. (pew research center, september 2014).
5. these adults would only be eligible for their state’s existing medicaid program, which is generally only available to very poor children and parents, or unsubsidized plans in the marketplaces.
6. three percent of uninsured adults ages 19 to 64 who did not visit the marketplace reported it was because they had, or will have, insurance through another source, 2% reported it was because the marketplaces were not open for enrollment when they needed coverage, and 1% reported going elsewhere to find health insurance. respondents who reported “some other reason” cited lack of time and citizenship status, among other reasons.
7. Four percent of adults ages 19 to 64 who were uninsured at the time of the survey or uninsured in the past 12 months and previously covered by a plan purchased on their own or through the Marketplace reported losing or canceled their Marketplace coverage because they couldn’t get the health care they needed, 2% reported it was because they didn’t think they needed it, and 1% reported it was because they moved. respondents who reported “some other reason” cited a lack of knowledge about their coverage options, among other reasons.
8. Four percent of adults ages 19 to 64 who were uninsured at the time of the survey or uninsured in the past 12 months and previously had Medicaid coverage reported having lost or dropped their Medicaid coverage because they did not they couldn’t afford it, and 3% reported it was because they couldn’t get the health care they needed. Respondents who reported “some other reason” cited a lack of knowledge about their coverage options and the complexity of the enrollment process, among other reasons.
9. The estimate includes three states (Idaho, Nebraska, Utah) that passed ballot initiatives in 2018 to expand Medicaid but have not yet done so. see commonwealth fund, “status of medicaid expansion and work requirements waivers,” interactive map, updated july 31, 2019; Rachel Garfield, Kendal Orgera, and Anthony Damico, The Coverage Gap: Poor Uninsured Adults in States Not Expanding Medicaid (Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, June 2018 and May 2019); and Matthew Buettgens, Implications of Medicaid Expansion in Remaining States (Urban Institute, May 2018).
10. Benjamin D. Sommers et al., “Medicaid Job Requirements: First-Year Results in Arkansas,” New England Journal of Medicine, Published online June 19, 2019.
11. Jodi Liu and Christine Eibner, Expanding Enrollment Without the Individual Mandate: Options for Bringing More People to the Individual Market (Commonwealth Fund, Aug 2018).
12. U.S. California Sen. Dianne Feinstein, “Senators Introduce Legislation to Improve Affordable Care Act, Make Coverage More Affordable for Middle-Class Families,” Press Release, June 7, 2017.
13. commonwealth fund, “what is your state doing to affect access to adequate health insurance?”, interactive map, updated august. 22, 2019.
14. Rachel Schwab, Emily Curran, and Sabrina Corlette, Assessing the Effectiveness of State Reinsurance: Case Studies of Three States’ Efforts to Boost Their Individual Markets (Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Nov 2018).
15. Sarah R. collins and roosa tikkanen, “the many varieties of universal coverage”, interactive, mar. 6, 2019.
16. Sarah R. collins, “consumers who buy health plans left in the dark by the trump administration,” to the point (blog), commonwealth fund, 19 july 2018.
17. Sarah R. collins, munira z. gunja and michelle m. doty, following the repeal and replacement effort here, where is the us government? rely on insurance coverage? Commonwealth Fund Affordable Care Act Tracking Survey Findings, March-June 2017 (Commonwealth Fund, September 2017).
18. collins and tikkanen, “many varieties of universal coverage”, 2019.
19. commonwealth fund, “what’s your state doing?”, 2019.
20. collins and tikkanen, “many varieties of universal coverage”, 2019.
21. Timothy S. Jost, “Fixing Our Most Pressing Health Insurance Problems: A Bipartisan Way Forward,” To The Point (blog), Commonwealth Fund, Jul 13, 2017.
22. Matthew Buettgens, Lisa Dubay, and Genevieve M. Kenney, “Market Subsidies: Changing the ‘Family Gap’ Reduces Family Health Spending but Increases Government Costs,” Health Matters 35, no. 7 (July 2016): 1167-75.
23. Matthew Buettgens, Stan Dorn, and Hannah Recht, more than 10 million uninsured people could get Marketplace coverage through special enrollment periods (Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and Urban Institute, November 2015).
24. Sarah R. collins, sherry a. Glied, and Adlan Jackson, The Potential Implications of Work Requirements for Insurance Coverage of Medicaid Beneficiaries: The Case of Kentucky (Commonwealth Fund, Oct 2018).
25. Benjamin D. Sommers, “Health insurance loss among non-elderly adults on Medicaid,” Journal of General Internal Medicine 24, no. 1 (2009 Jan): 1-7.
26. commonwealth fund, “what’s your state doing?”, 2019.