what is ethereum 2?
ethereum 2 (or ethereum 2.0) is the next generation of ethereum: a major update to the ethereum blockchain network. this implies a shift from using proof-of-work to proof-of-stake for block validation on the ethereum blockchain. the current method of mining will end and the network will be protected by validators that confirm transactions and include them in blocks. proof of stake will reduce the energy required to run ethereum and help increase its resistance to attacks. also offers the opportunity to win rewards by gambling.
ethereum 2 will also introduce a new structure: instead of being a chain, it will consist of a chain of beacons that communicate with multiple sharded blockchains (“shards”). this allows transactions to take place in parallel, increasing transaction throughput and network capacity.
Reading: Will my ethereum become ethereum 2.0
ethereum 2 will be implemented in several phases. Phase 0, the launch of the beacon chain, is expected in late 2020. For more details of the phases, see our roadmap on Ethereum 2 Matters: A Journey Through Time.
Below is a list of common questions about ethereum 2.
what is ethereum 2 (ethereum 2.0 / eth2)?
eth2 is short for ethereum 2 / ethereum 2.0, a major update to the ethereum blockchain network. also often used to refer to the eth token used on the ethereum 2 blockchain.
when will ethereum 2 be released?
ethereum 2 will be rolled out in several phases over the next few years. phase 0, the beacon chain, was launched on december 1, 2020. phases 1 and 1.5 are expected in 2022. check out our roadmap on ethereum 2 issues: a journey through time.
how many phases are expected in ethereum 2?
ethereum 2 will be implemented in three main phases:
• phase 0: the chain of beacons. released on December 1, 2020. this is the main chain that ensures that the network fragments stay in sync. it achieves this by using validators.
• phase 1: the chains of fragments. planned for 2022. ethereum data and transactions will run on shard chains. these are proof-of-stake blockchains that use validators to confirm transactions, create blocks, and communicate with the beacon chain. ethereum 2 is expected to start with 64 shards. at this point, they will not support accounts or smart contracts.
• phase 1.5: the legacy ethereum chain becomes a shard on the new ethereum blockchain. planned for 2022. in this phase, the legacy ethereum network will transition to a proof-of-stake network and connect to the main ethereum 2 chain.
• phase 2: fully functioning fragments. planned for 2022. shard chains will be fully operational and able to communicate with each other and run smart contracts.
how is ethereum 2 different from the previous version of ethereum?
Until now, ethereum has been a proof-of-work blockchain. In ethereum 2, the network will upgrade to a proof-of-stake blockchain and introduce a beacon chain and shard chains. This update will reduce power consumption, increase the speed and number of possible transactions, and keep the network secure and decentralized.
why is ethereum upgrading to ethereum 2?
The legacy ethereum network uses a proof-of-work block validation process, similar to bitcoin. ethereum 2 proposes a series of architectural changes, which aim to introduce a series of improvements to ethereum, helping to reduce the energy required to run the chain, increasing scalability and transaction performance, while also increasing resistance to network attacks.
what are “validators” in ethereum 2?
With a proof-of-stake block validation process, ethereum 2 will use validators to protect the network.
A validator on ethereum 2 runs computer software that confirms transactions on shards, adds them to the next block in the chain, and communicates with the chain of beacons. a minimum of 32 eth is required to be a validator, along with some technical skills.
Validators are rewarded for validating blocks and securing the network and are fined (“trimmed”) if they misbehave or maliciously. this financial incentive helps ensure “good behavior” and keeps the network running in a well-coordinated manner.
what does “beacon chain” mean in ethereum 2?
Instead of being just one blockchain, ethereum 2 will be made up of multiple chains: a central beacon chain connected to multiple chains of shards (“shards”). the beacon chain on ethereum 2 will be released in phase 0.
what is a “shard” in ethereum 2?
shards, shards, or shard chains refer to parallel blockchains that exist within the new ethereum 2 framework. while previously ethereum existed as a blockchain, the new framework consists of a central beacon chain connected to different chains of fragments (expected to be 64 initially). this allows parallel processing of transactions in different shards. transactions in each shard will be verified by validators and confirmation will be passed up the beacon chain, thus maintaining consensus across the network.
what is “serenity” in ethereum 2?
serenity, or serenity update, is the original name used for ethereum 2.
what is the ethereum 2 deposit contract?
As part of the transition to ethereum 2 and proof of stake, there will be a one-way bridge for eth holders to move their tokens to the beacon chain. this is called the deposit agreement. must be filled with 524,288 eth for staking to start on the beacon chain.
eth tokens deposited in the escrow contract cannot be deleted or transferred until phase 1.5 of the ethereum 2 upgrade.
what happens to the old ethereum network when ethereum 2 is released?
Initially, Ethereum’s legacy proof-of-work version will continue to run after the release of Ethereum 2. In phase 1.5, Ethereum’s legacy network will switch to Proof-of-Stake and transition to Ethereum 2 as a shard. existing eth tokens become fully fungible and transactional again.
will my old eth tokens become worthless after ethereum 2?
no, you will be able to transfer your eth to the ethereum 2 network. initially, both networks will run in parallel, but in phase 1.5, the legacy ethereum network will transition to ethereum 2 as a proof-of-stake shard.
will i be able to use my existing eth tokens on ethereum 2?
yes, you will be able to use your existing eth tokens on the new ethereum 2 infrastructure. there are two possibilities to use your eth on ethereum 2.
- participate in ethereum 2: If you want to participate in block validation in ethereum 2, you can stake as a validator. To do this, you’ll need to send your eth tokens to the ethereum 2 escrow contract.
- If you don’t want to stake, but just hold eth tokens or use them in other applications, you can wait until phase 1.5, at which point that ethereum legacy blockchain is merged with ethereum 2.
what happens to my old eth tokens when ethereum 2 is released?
Your existing eth tokens will be transferable to the ethereum 2 chain. The legacy proof-of-work ethereum chain will continue alongside the new ethereum 2 chain initially. at a later stage (1.5), the legacy chain will be incorporated into the ethereum 2 blockchain as a shard.
Your eth tokens that are on the current ethereum chain will automatically be accessible on the ethereum 2 chain and you don’t need to do anything.
if you send your eth to the escrow contract to start staking on the ethereum 2 blockchain they will be locked until phase 1.5 of the ethereum 2 transition. this means they will potentially be locked and non-transferable for 1 year or more.
Is ethereum 2 a fork?
not. Since its inception, ethereum has gone through several upgrades in the form of hard forks. with ethereum 2, instead of forking, a whole new blockchain based on proof of stake is being launched. this will initially run in parallel to the legacy chain and will be implemented in several phases.
what happens to all the apps and data on ethereum after the release of ethereum 2?
over time, all dapps currently living on ethereum will migrate to ethereum 2. no data or transaction logs will be lost as a result of the switch to ethereum 2.
what is “staking” in ethereum 2?
Betting on ethereum 2 is the act of participating in the validation of blocks on the network by committing funds, staking them, and serving as a validator.
There are two ways to bet: become a validator or join a betting pool.
- validators: A validator on the ethereum network runs computer software that confirms transactions on the network, adds them to the next block in the chain, and communicates between the shard and the beacon chain. a minimum stake of 32 eth is required to be a validator, along with software and some technical skills.
- stake pools: if you are under 32 eth or don’t want to run a validator yourself, you should be able to participate through a betting pool or betting service.
when can i start betting on ethereum 2?
participation in the ethereum 2 blockchain will begin with the launch of the beacon chain, once the deposit contract has been completed. this took place on December 1, 2020.
bitcoin suisse has offered its all-in-one staking service for ethereum 2 since the first day of staking on the ethereum 2 chain.
note: initial participation in the beacon chain is a one-way process only until ethereum 2 is further developed. participation in this phase is held by a smart contract on the legacy network, so eth cannot be withdrawn until the current chain is sharded on ethereum 2.
At the time of writing, Ethereum 2 staking launch is estimated for December 1st, but this timeline is subject to change. If you want to stake with bitcoin suisse from day one of ethereum 2, you will need to complete the bitcoin suisse staking process by November 22.
Is there an advantage to betting on ethereum 2 from day one?
The benefit is to earn potentially higher rewards (up to 21.6%) than will be offered later. To learn more, read our article on ethereum 2 validator economics.
how much eth do i need to stake on ethereum 2?
staking as a validator on ethereum 2 requires a minimum of 32 eth. By betting through a betting pool or service, it is possible to bet and earn rewards with less than 32 eth.
Are there risks when betting on ethereum 2?
As a validator’s misbehavior is punishable by a fine (“haircut”), there is risk involved in staking. get more details in our article ethereum 2 issues: validator economics.